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Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Cross-Border Investing: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe offers a view that reflects two main hypotheses: -You cannot understand foreign direct investment FDI trends and developments unless you understand the company's motives to invest, -You cannot understand a company's cross-border investment decision-making unless you understand what the investment area offers.

Show all. Table of contents 11 chapters Table of contents 11 chapters Introduction and Summary Pages The world map of investments Pages Analytical approaches towards FDI Pages Central and Eastern Europe as an investment area Pages Cross-Border Investment Model Pages Automobile industry Pages Unilever Group Pages Numico Pages In this case both functional, day to day, use of the cross-border space and institutionalized governance of a shared urbanized region are quite weak Orcier On balance, this paper concentrates on the impediments to functional integration in an urban space that has been divided and recomposed by the changing meaning of the international boundary.

Orcier argues that the most significant barriers to functional reintegration are differences in currency and language. The increasing marginalization of this urban interface on the border as the trade, travel and tourism that fed the region went elsewhere has also diminished local incentives for cross-border governance and external interest in forging regional ties. There is some hope that the modest INTERREG projects that have been attempted in the region the process of Europeanization that should occur as Latvia transitions to the Euro will increase cross-border integration.

In this case links are primarily between civic actors at the local scale and the national level governments these actors have lobbied to loosen border controls in the area. The obstacles to cooperation in this region are largely geopolitical. Because the preservation and exploitation of the ecological space is not a highly politicized issue, and the benefits to both sides are relatively desirable, civic organization has been successful. Maury and Richard show that tensions over water management are related to differences in administrative structures and processes that have inflated the number of actors involved in governance structures.

Power struggles between Spanish and Catalan authorities have also complicated the policy environment rendering it difficult to identify which actors have the competencies to address collective water management issues. However, the most intractable barrier to cooperation between political actors springs from a surprising source and runs much deeper than mere institutional differences.

Maury and Richard suggest that despite the presence of a relatively strong cultural community in the region the roots of this collective action problem can ultimately be traced to a lack of trust between French and Spanish actors. The conviction by actors on one side that water-use reduction efforts will only profit the water guzzlers on the other side of the border has so far stood in the way of any serious effort at collaborative resource management. What is striking is that in each of the cases similar conditions have had different influences on cooperative outcomes.

Yet neither of these factors was mentioned as a significant barrier to the functional integration of the eco-tourism region across the Polish-Belarusian border.

Comparing the CEE markets: Árpád Török, Chief Executive Officer, TriGranit, Hungary

Furthermore, in the one region where currency, cultural and linguistic barriers are low collaborative water governance still proves quite difficult. This pattern, evident even in this small number of cases, demonstrates that the factors that limit or stimulate cooperation in one case will not necessarily have the same effect in others. Understanding why, and under which circumstances, different factors can hinder or encourage cross-border cooperation represents an important agenda for comparative research and holds the potential to improve prospects for functional and institutional integration in a wide variety of contexts.

In these cases borders are presented as limits, horizons, bridges, breaches, opportunities, and assets.

Cross-Border Investing

How these boundaries are perceived has shifted over time and often differs from one side of the border to the next. In each case the constructed identities of communities relative to the border determines how they are used in political discourse and development strategies. Valga, on the Estonian side, has incorporated the idea of a cross-border urban space into its identity.

Its logo and marketing strategies build on the benefits of its position as a transboundary city and emphasize the positive aspects of cross-border exchanges to its development and future growth. Where Valga literally embraces the border in its marketing strategies Valka turns away from it. The border is therefore an end for the inward-looking Valka, and an asset to the more cosmopolitan Valga. As was the case with the Latvia and Estonian border, a previously fluid space was divided as Poland lost its eastern frontier territories to the USSR in the s. As a result, the contemporary border is very much a barrier, tightly controlled and penetrated only with difficulty.

In this case a previously impermeable boundary has become an economic and political opportunity for social forces on either side of the border and has proven to be more porous to certain types of cross-border interaction than it has been in the past. Maury and Richard note that individuals in the region identified minor differences between the practices and political cultures of community members on either side of the border.

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This indicates that the border remains a division even within a relatively homogeneous cultural community. In their analysis of cross-border relations the authors find that local actors have simultaneously portrayed the boundary in positive and negative lights in order to reap political benefits in different situations. Depending on circumstances it has been presented as an easily crossed boundary, an administrative reality sanctioned by European institutions, a line of demarcation between two cultures or a symbol of unity Maury and Richard On one hand, the construction of cross-border space is an example of the plural and shifting types of identities that characterize modern globalization and are deconstructing the idea of state sovereignty.

On the other hand, that these identities are very much constructed around the presence of a state border demonstrates the salience that the boundaries of nation states still have in modern space. States may no longer have the monopoly of control they once enjoyed but the meme that their boundaries represent, however they are exploited, are still very powerful influences on human interaction. It is also likely that a greater number of contributions would hardly be sufficient, in light of the sheer diversity of the forms and functions of European borders.

Nonetheless, the articles selected for this issue allow exploring two aspects of border studies that so far have been somewhat neglected. The first aspect relates to the forms territorial discontinuities may take in a world where flows are more and more present. The second aspect concerns the function institutional and political actors of border regions may play in the implementation of border regimes. In other words, the social sciences must seek to theorize limits when movement is no longer a temporary state between two stable states, and instead becomes the main form of production of space.

The articles in this issue show that modern borders still play a major role in functional and institutional terms. However, these frontiers are the legacy of a geopolitical model, in which the mosaic of nation-states was expected to cover the whole surface of the Earth and control flows between states. With the increasing mobility of goods, people, knowledge, capital and information, came new forms of limits, adding to the better-known ones: modern borders. The tools of the social sciences seem ill-suited to grasp the full complexity of this process of b ordering, which does not take place only at the spatial scale of states but also concerns ordinary places, the self and the other, here and elsewhere, the known and the unknown etc.

However, the strategies used to benefit from the positive aspects of the opening and closing of frontiers and the ensuing border regime still need to be studied in greater detail. Within a space characterized on the whole by a lowering of borders — as in the EU — these strategies, developed by political and economic actors, allow questioning the generally supposed adequacy between the functional integration that results from cross-border interactions, through the labor market for instance, and institutional integration, effected most notably by the creation of cooperation institutions.

As a matter of fact, certain regions or states can find interest in maintaining a situation that, from a theoretical point of view, is far from optimal in that institutional integration does not match its functional counterpart. These regions or states benefit both from European and international openness and from regional and sometimes major differentials as compared with neighbors on the other side of the border such as Luxembourg where the busiest European border in terms of cross-border commuting is located.

An analysis of such dynamic balances is still needed so as to contribute to a theory of borders able to go beyond the limits of the dichotomy between barrier and interface, a dichotomy that is fundamental and yet too reductive. Border, border regions and territoriality: Contradictory meanings, changing significance. Regional Studies 33 7 : — New Borders for a Changing Europe. London, Frank Cass. Andersson M. Region branding: The case of the Baltic Sea Region.

Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 3 Blatter J. Beyond hierarchies and networks: Institutional logics and change in transboundary spaces. Governance 16 4 : — Brunet-Jailly E. Journal of Borderland Studies 21 2 : 1— Carpentier S. Luxembourg: Saint-Paul. Spatial integration in European cross-border metropolitan regions: A comparative approach. Cross-Border Polycentric Metropolitan Regions. Final Report. European Union. Brussels, European Commission. Trade in the Triad: How easy is the access to large markets? Canadian Journal of Economics 38 4 : — Gualini E. Cross-border governance: Inventing regions in a trans-national multi-level polity.

DISP 43— Hansen N. Border regions: a critique of spatial theory and a European case study. The Annals of Regional Science 11 1 : 1— The economic development of border regions. Heimpold G. The economic situation and development in the German regions along the border with Poland. Herzog L. International boundary cities: The debate of transfrontier planning in two border regions.

Operations and processes

National Resources Journal 31 3 : — The transfrontier metropolis. Harvard Design Magazine 1: 16— Hospers G. Borders, bridges and branding: the transformation of the Oresund Region into an imagined space. European Planning Studies 14 8 : — Konrad V, Nicol H. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Regional integration or fragmentation? The German-Polish border region in a new Europe. Metropolisation of the European economic territory as a consequence of increasing specialisation of urban agglomerations in the knowledge economy. European Planning Studies 15 1 : 1— Leresche J. Political frontier regimes: Towards cross-border governance? London, Palgrave MacMillan: 77— Marin A. Martinez O. The dynamics of border interaction. New approaches to border analysis, in Schofield C.

References - Investing Across Borders - World Bank Group

Global Boundaries. World Boundaries. London, Routledge: 1 — Maury C, Richard S. Medeiros E.